This may not be the most vim-ey way of doing things, but it's often convenient to use the standard keyboard arrows to navigate large blocks of text. They behave as desired in insert mode. This is especially handy for environments that don't offer a vimrc, like Overleaf.
In insert mode, ctrl+right/left arrow are convenient substitutes for 'e' and 'b'. Just ...
See :h Terminal-mode:
Terminal-Job and Terminal-Normal mode
When the job is running the contents of the terminal is under control of the
job. That includes the cursor position. Typed keys are sent to the job.
The terminal contents can change at any time. This is called Terminal-...