No, this is not possible. After some searching on the web, it appears other people have asked about this very feature before on other stack exchange sites:
And even on the vim mailing group:
Both of these say it is impossible. However, Bram Moolenaar (the author and maintainer of vim) is on that email thread, and while he didn't say that feature was possible, he did hint at the possibility of implementing it sometime eventually.
How about Vim keeping a list of the last N typed keys?
Suppose there is a function keyhistory(1), where the argument is how far
back you look.
I wonder how that would be used in a plugin.
I don't know how high on his priority list this is (probably not very high), but I suppose you could sponsor vim and vote for this feature if you really want it.