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Setting foldmethod=marker, I can highlight a few lines, press zf to fold them. By default vi will add {{{ and }}} at the ends of the beginning and ending lines. I am working on shell scripts with filename.sh. I find that vim is clever enough to add #{{{ and #}}} if that particular line is (ending with) code, which the preceding # is intended to comment out the curly brackets. However vi does not add a space before #, which makes this #{{{ comment mess up with the code indeed.

The correct way would be adding #{{{ and #}}}. set foldmarker=\ #\ {{{,\ #\ }}} does not work, as vi will add an extra # sign, without leading space, before the custom fold markers.

In fact, we do not need vi to be so smart to distinguish between codes or comments. Just blindly adding #{{{ and #}}} (with preceding spaces) will work in both cases. This won't harm in the comments.

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Vim uses the 'commentstring' option to start a comment if this option is not empty. The placeholder %s inside the 'commentstring' option is replaced with the opening and closing foldmarkers, respectively.

The default commentstring for shell scripts is #%s, so there is no leading space. You can change that with set commentstring=\ #%s. Because this option is currently only used to add markers for folding (see :help 'commentstring') you should not notice unwanted side effects.

See :help fold-create-marker for the details.

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  • Thank you @JürgenKrämer. I do not know why only set commentstring=\ #%s in ~/.vimrc has no effect. With reference to another post, wrap it inside augroup does the job perfectly. It turns out I am using setlocal foldmarker=\ {{{,\ }}}, augroup MyCommentStringGroup \n autocmd FileType sh setlocal commentstring=\ #%s \n augroup END which gives me very nice zf markups.
    – midnite
    May 26, 2022 at 9:28
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    @midnite You can check where this option was last set with :verbose set commentstring?. I would guess it is set by the standard sh filetype plugin. In that case you can override it by putting setlocal commentstring=\ #%s in a file called ~/.vim/after/ftplugin/sh.vim. This file will get loaded by Vim after the standard filetype plugin and is IMHO the best place if you want to override the default settings -- even more so, if you want to change more than one setting. May 27, 2022 at 7:15
  • Thanks you @JürgenKrämer again. I get it now. Yes you are right. It was set in /usr/share/vim/vim82/ftplugin/sh.vim and I can override it. I will keep this best practice. For setlocal commentstring=\<tab>#%s, I actually typed the <tab> literally. I found that \tdoes not work. Any better suggestion to specify <tab> in the setting files?
    – midnite
    May 27, 2022 at 12:11
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    For every global option there is an identically named special variable with a leading ampersand, and for every local variable there is one with a leading l:&. They are aliased to the actual options. You can use these variables in "normal" assignments where you provide the option value as a number or a string. In string values the normal rules for special characters apply, so for your example you can use let &l:commentstring="\t#%s" to include a tab. May 27, 2022 at 12:32
  • Yeah. Bingo. Thank you @JürgenKrämer. Now I learn a lot more. let &l:commentstring="\t#%s" works. l:& should be a typo. It should be a leading &l: instead.
    – midnite
    May 27, 2022 at 14:12

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