Hi is there a way to map German umlaute like "ö", "ä", "ü" to some keyboard shortcut, i.e. when I press the keyboard shortcut, it inserts the umlaut.
I am German and use an English keyboard layout, but sometimes write in German.
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You might want to look into digraphs, which give you a built-in solution to accents and umlauts in Vim.
For umlauted "u" you can type:
Ctrl+K, :, u
Ctrl+K, u, :
:help digraphs-use for using digraphs, or
:help digraphs-default for a very comprehensive list of the digraphs defined by default that you can use. (You will find umlaut is listed as Diaeresis in that list.)