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I'll leave ? at the beginning of a commented line to mark a todo item.
-- ? TODO ...
This line will be marked as comment.
How to highlight the ? and the remaining text by Todo color while keep the -- as comment color?

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You'll need to know what syntax item your filetype uses for comments.

The only languages I know that use -- as a comment marker are Ada and MySQL. For these, use the following lines, respectively:

syntax match Todo /--\s*\zs?.*/ containedin=adaComment
syntax match Todo /--\s*\zs?.*/ containedin=mysqlComment

We're matching the entire comment (because we don't want question marks halfway through a comment to be marked as TODO items), but using \zs to tell Vim to only start highlighting at the ?.

Breaking down the regular expression:

  • --\s*: Match two dashes followed by any amount of whitespace,
  • \zs: "Start" the match,
  • ?: Match a question mark,
  • .*: Match anything else that follows on that line.

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